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Pleiotropic effects of fenretinide in neuroblastoma cell lines and multicellular tumor spheroids.

Int J Oncol. 2008 May;32(5):1011-9

Authors: Cuperus R, Tytgat GA, Leen R, Brites P, Bras J, Caron HN, Van Kuilenburg AB

The efficacy and mechanism of action of fenretinide (4-HPR), a vitamin A analogue, was investigated in a panel of six neuroblastoma cell lines and multicellular tumor spheroids. The latter are three dimensional cell aggregates and as such, a model for micrometastases. In all cell lines, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased with 163-680% after 1 h of treatment with 4-HPR. In addition, a decrease of the mitochondrial membrane potential of 30-75% was observed after 4 h of incubation with 4-HPR. A 6-12-fold difference was observed between the IC50 values for cell proliferation and viability between the most sensitive (IMR32) and most resistant (NASS) cell line towards 4-HPR. Flow cytometric analysis showed an increased amount of apoptotic bodies and no cell-cycle arrest. The antioxidant Trolox completely inhibited the accumulation of 4HPR-induced ROS and prevented the 4HPR-associated cytotoxicity. In all neuroblastoma spheroids, 4-HPR induced a complete cytostasis at clinical relevant concentrations (3-10 microM). Immunohistochemical analysis of 4-HPR-treated spheroids showed a decreased staining for proliferation marker Ki-67 and an increased staining for cleaved-PARP, a marker of apoptosis. Our results suggest that 4-HPR might be a promising agent for the treatment of micrometastases and high-risk neuroblastoma.

PMID: 18425327 [PubMed – in process]

(Source: International Journal of Oncology)]></span>
Evaluation of a nanotechnology-based carrier for delivery of curcumin in prostate cancer cells.

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Evaluation of a nanotechnology-based carrier for delivery of curcumin in prostate cancer cells.

Int J Oncol. 2008 May;32(5):1119-23

Authors: Thangapazham RL, Puri A, Tele S, Blumenthal R, Maheshwari RK

We have initiated studies to enhance targeted delivery of an anticancer agent, curcumin, for prostate cancer treatment by incorporating this agent into the liposomes (nanodelivery vehicles primarily composed of phospholipids) coated with prostate membrane specific antigen specific antibodies. We prepared curcumin-loaded liposomes of various lipid compositions by sonication at an average size of 100-150 nm. Un-entrapped curcumin was removed by size exclusion chromatography. Data show that curcumin preferentially partitioned into liposomes prepared from dimyristoyl phosphatidyl choline (DMPC) and cholesterol among the various compositions tested. The anti-proliferative activity of liposomal curcumin was studied using two human prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP and C4-2B) by a tetrazolium dye-based (MTT) assay. Treatment of cells with liposomal curcumin (5-10 microM) for 24-48 h at 37 degrees C resulted in at least 70-80% inhibition of cellular proliferation without affecting their viability. On the other hand, free curcumin exhibited similar inhibition only at 10-fold higher doses (>50 microM). We also observed that LNCaP cells were relatively more sensitive to liposomal curcumin mediated block of cellular proliferation than C4-2B cells. We are currently developing liposome formulations with targeting ability to further improve the efficacy of curcumin in vivo.

PMID: 18425340 [PubMed – in process]

(Source: International Journal of Oncology)]></span>
Prevention of amyloid beta-induced memory impairment by fluvastatin, associated with the decrease in amyloid beta accumulation and oxidative stressin amyloid beta injection mouse model.

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Prevention of amyloid beta-induced memory impairment by fluvastatin, associated with the decrease in amyloid beta accumulation and oxidative stressin amyloid beta injection mouse model.

Int J Mol Med. 2008 May;21(5):531-7

Authors: Kurinami H, Sato N, Shinohara M, Takeuchi D, Takeda S, Shimamura M, Ogihara T, Morishita R

Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, is characterized by amyloid beta (Abeta)-containing plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, and synaptic and neuronal loss, along with progressive cognitive impairment. Although growing evidence suggests the beneficial effects of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) on AD, this notion is still controversial. To evaluate the efficacy of statins for Abeta-induced cognitive impairment, we employed an Abeta injection model. Using this model, the present study demonstrated that pretreatment with fluvastatin, but not post-treatment just after Abeta exposure, prevented Abeta-induced memory impairment. We also observed that fluvastatin significantly decreased Abeta accumulation and oxidative stress after Abeta injection. Mice treated with simvastatin, but not fluvastatin, did not demonstrate the prevention of Abeta-induced memory impairment, and showed no significant decrease in oxidative stress. More importantly, fluvastatin significantly prevented the loss of neurons in the basal forebrain induced by Abeta. Overall, the present study demonstrated that fluvastatin significantly prevented memory impairment induced by Abeta. The beneficial effects of fluvastatin might be explained by the preservation of neurons through a significant decrease in Abeta accumulation and oxidative stress. In clinical practice, the timing of the start of fluvastatin treatment might be critical in achieving a beneficial effect on cognitive function.

PMID: 18425343 [PubMed – in process]

(Source: International Journal of Molecular Medicine)]></span>
Reovirus activates human dendritic cells to promote innate antitumor immunity.

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Reovirus Activates Human Dendritic Cells to Promote Innate Antitumor Immunity.

J Immunol. 2008 May 1;180(9):6018-6026

Authors: Errington F, Steele L, Prestwich R, Harrington KJ, Pandha HS, Vidal L, de Bono J, Selby P, Coffey M, Vile R, Melcher A

Oncolytic viruses can exert their antitumor activity via direct oncolysis or activation of antitumor immunity. Although reovirus is currently under clinical investigation for the treatment of localized or disseminated cancer, any potential immune contribution to its efficacy has not been addressed. This is the first study to investigate the ability of reovirus to activate human dendritic cells (DC), key regulators of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Reovirus induced DC maturation and stimulated the production of the proinflammatory cytokines IFN-alpha, TNF-alpha, IL-12p70, and IL-6. Activation of DC by reovirus was not dependent on viral replication, while cytokine production (but not phenotypic maturation) was inhibited by blockade of PKR and NF-kappaB signaling. Upon coculture with autologous NK cells, reovirus-activated DC up-regulated IFN-gamma production and increased NK cytolytic activity. Moreover, short-term coculture of reovirus-activated DC with autologous T cells also enhanced T cell cytokine secretion (IL-2 and IFN-gamma) and induced non-Ag restricted tumor cell killing. These data demonstrate for the first time that reovirus directly activates human DC and that reovirus-activated DC stimulate innate killing by not only NK cells, but also T cells, suggesting a novel potential role for T cells in oncolytic virus-induced local tumor cell death. Hence reovirus recognition by DC may trigger innate effector mechanisms to complement the virus’s direct cytotoxicity, potentially enhancing the efficacy of reovirus as a therapeutic agent.

PMID: 18424722 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

(Source: Journal of Immunology)]></span>
Endocrine manipulation in male infertility.

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